IraqMiddle East – North Africa News June 30, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 US Army releases journalist after four-days of unexplained detention Three jailed reporters charged with “undermining national security” Organisation Reporters Without Borders welcomed the release on 28 June of freelance journalist Ahmed al-Majun, president of the local branch of the Iraq journalists’ union in Tikrit, north of Baghdad. He had been arrested in the city along with his son on the night of 23-24 June and held at the US base in Speicher, 15 kilometres north of Tikrit. The Journalistic Freedom Observatory in Iraq said that al-Majun had been subjected to interrogations, the content of which he had been forbidden to reveal.The US Army made no comment on the reasons for his detention, nor that of Ahmed Nuri, cameraman for Associated Press, whose release has also been urged by the worldwide press freedom organisation. —————————————————————–25.06.2008US and Iraqi soldiers arrest another journalist in TikritReporters Without Borders condemns the arrest of journalist Ahmed Al-Majoun in a raid by US and Iraqi soldiers on his home in Tikrit (180 km north of Baghdad) early yesterday. His son was also arrested. Majoun heads a journalists union based in Salah El Din, the province of which Tikrit is the capital. No reason has been given for their arrests.“We are disturbed to see that, just a few weeks after the arrest of Associated Press cameraman Ahmed Nouri, the armed forces are still not respecting the work of journalists,” the press freedom organisation said. “The arrests of Majoun and his son are unjustified. We call on the US forces to say exactly what they are charged with or else release them.”A joint US-Iraqi military unit arrested Majoun and his son at around 2 a.m. yesterday after forcing their way into his home using stun grenades that damaged the front door and windows. The Journalistic Freedoms Observatory said the soldiers stayed in the house until dawn. It is believed that Majoun and his son are being held at the US military base in Tikrit. The US military has refused to comment on their arrest.Nouri, the AP cameraman, has been held at the same base since 4 June despite a joint appeal for his release by Reporters Without Borders and the Journalistic Freedoms Observatory. He was also arrested at his home by US and Iraqi soldiers. IraqMiddle East – North Africa February 15, 2021 Find out more Receive email alerts Follow the news on Iraq Help by sharing this information News News RSF_en News December 28, 2020 Find out more December 16, 2020 Find out more RSF’s 2020 Round-up: 50 journalists killed, two-thirds in countries “at peace” to go further Iraq : Wave of arrests of journalists covering protests in Iraqi Kurdistan
Advertisement Comment Former Arsenal captain Granit Xhaka hasn’t played for Arsenal since his outburst against Crystal Palace (Picture: Getty)‘It is a privilege to follow in their footsteps and I will honour the armband by doing my very best on and off the pitch.‘When I was younger, I remember always wanting to be captain in my youth teams. I was talking about it with my mum just the other day actually. We were laughing because we recalled how I used to buy armbands myself so I could wear them!‘At the start of my career, I was not too focused on being captain or not. Now, it feels right. It comes with a lot of responsibilities but I feel I can do a great job. I have been Gabon captain since 2015 and that was also a great honour.‘My dad was also the national team captain when he was playing. So to take over from him in a way was again very special. Now, I am doing the double with Arsenal and Gabon and it is a wonderful privilege.’Will Aubameyang sign a new Arsenal contract?Yes0%No0%Share your resultsShare your resultsTweet your resultsMORE: Unai Emery explains why Lucas Torreira isn’t playing as a defensive midfielder for ArsenalMORE: Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang and Alexandre Lacazette will leave if Arsenal don’t improve, warns Martin Keown Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang was confirmed as Arsenal’s new captain earlier this month by Unai Emery (Picture: Getty)Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang insists he is privileged to have been named as Arsenal captain and hopes to follow in the footsteps of club legends Tony Adams and Patrick Vieira.Arsenal’s star striker was confirmed as Granit Xhaka’s permanent successor as the club’s skipper last month after the Switzerland international was stripped of the captaincy following his outburst against Crystal Palace and subsequent refusal to offer a full apology to his own supporters and teammates.Aubameyang wore the armband against Leicester before the international and hit out at reports the dressing room was divided over his appointment during the international break.AdvertisementAdvertisementThe former Borussia Dortmund star will lead out his team in today’s vital Premier League match against Southampton and he accept he will feel an extra weight of responsibility.ADVERTISEMENT‘Arsenal has a great history of wonderful captains like Patrick Vieira and Tony Adams,’ Aubameyang told Arsenal’s official matchday programme. Advertisement Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang finally breaks silence on being named Arsenal captain Metro Sport ReporterSaturday 23 Nov 2019 10:40 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link4kShares
A pooled $20m-40m (€14m-28m) US fund should have the same credentials, it said.AHV, which also manages invalidity compensation scheme IV (CHF4.7bn) and military service/maternity leave scheme EO (CHF600m), returned 2.8% last year, below the Swiss national average of 6%.As per year-end 2013, the fund had 5% invested in real estate, with 52% in mainly domestic bonds, 13% in loans and 26% in equities.The remainder was commodities (2%). AHV is looking to invest in European and US real estate on the back of below-average returns last year.Switzerland’s CHF30bn (€24.4bn) first-pillar pension fund is looking to the core and core-plus segments of both continents.An exclusively European €15m-20m pooled fund is being targeted with a maximum 50% leverage ratio.AHV is looking for stabilised, income-producing real estate assets.
OVER the last 15 years, Rose Hall Town Youth and Sports Club, MS (RHTY&SC) and the Albion Community Centre Cricket Club (ACCCC) have been the two dominant cricket teams in Berbice. They have played numerous finals at different levels and both clubs have a lot of respect for each other. On Sunday, both clubs advanced to another final after registering victories in their respective semifinals of the Berbice Cricket Board(BCB)/Trophy Stall U-13 tournament. RHT Poonai Pharmacy defeated a determined Rose Hall Canje on first innings, while Albion obtained a similar result against Achievers CC at the Bush Lot ground.At the Hampshire ground, RHT Poonai Pharmacy won the toss and elected to bowl first. Rose Hall Canje raced to 60 without loss as Zadeem La Rose and R. Ramdehol started like a house on fire. Ramdehol fell for 19 to spark a spectacular collapse to 107 for 8 off their allotted 40 overs.La Rose top-scored with a well-played 65. Spinners Tyrese Smartt 3 for 26 and Imran Mohamad 3 for 21 were the best bowlers for Poonai Pharmacy. Needing to score 108 to take first innings and a place in the final, the 2018 Under-13 runners-up reached 131 for 6 when their first-innings quota 40 overs were bowled.Meanwhile, 12-year-old Tyron Smartt batted throughout the innings to remain unbeaten on a classy 63 not out while Khemraj Tika scored 16 before he was run-out in a mix-up with Smartt.La Rose returned with the ball for Canje to take 3 for 31. Batting a second time with 70 minutes remaining in the match, Rose Hall Canje raced to 61 for 2 with Aaron Craig hitting a quick-fire 29. Off spinner Deeraj Ramjit took 2 wickets for 19 for RHT Poonai Pharmacy as the match was called off early.At Bush Lot ground in West Coast Berbice, Albion, batting first, against Achievers scored 77 from 29.4 overs. Afraz Budhoo top-scored with 36, which included seven sweetly-struck boundaries.Extras contributed a healthy 13. T. Isaacs took 4 for 20 and T. Ramcharran 3 for 14 for West Berbice who in reply were bowled out for 27, with only E. Rogers reaching double figures with 10. Seven of Achievers batsmen failed to trouble the scorers as Afraz Budhoo 3 for 10, Devin LalBehari 2 for 10 and Ritesh Nathoor 2 for 0 bowled well for the visitors.Albion, batting a second time reached 65 for 4 when the game was called off. Afraz Budhoo completed a fine all-round performance by scoring 16 while Nathaniel Chinapen 17 and Devin LalBehari 17 chipped in with support. A. Doobay took 2 for 11 while T. Isaacs and C. Dale took a wicket apiece. Earlier in the day, the match was delayed by three hours due to heavy morning rain.RHT Poonai Pharmacy and Albion would clash in the final on Saturday at the Area ‘H’ Ground. The 2018 Under-13 runners-up had taken first innings from Albion, when they played in the opening round at the Area ‘H’ Ground.The match would bowl off at 10:00hrs, with the first innings being restricted to 40 overs.
Facebook87Tweet0Pin0 Submitted by Harlequin ProductionsOlympia Family Theater’s new location is on 4th Avenue, across from City Hall.There is no one answer to what makes “good” theater. Each person will answer this question from their unique perspective. Fortunately for everyone, the Olympia theater scene has a broad range of offerings for South Sound theater patrons.Olympia Family Theater (OFT) recently moved into the space across from City Hall. There, they present fantastic shows to entertain and empower children and families. Their next show is The Monster Under the Bed, a hilarious (not scary) musical for the whole family (recommended for kids 6+).Just down the road, Theater Artists Olympia (TAO) recently moved into the Midnight Sun Performance Space. As they get settled into their new home, they continue to pump out imaginative works of theater that “comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable.” Currently on their stage is The Head! That Wouldn’t DIE!, a musical adaptation of a 1958 B-horror flick featuring original songs and a disembodied singing head rolling around the place. I had the chance to see this one last weekend and had a blast; it’s a fun and clever show wrought with inspired insanity.Take a short trip northward from OFT’s magical castle and TAO’s wicked cavern and you’ll find yourself at Priest Point Park, the home of Animal Fire Theatre’s outdoor Shakespeare. AFT has been presenting summer Shakespeare in the park in Olympia for five summers and are getting set for their sixth. Although they have not yet announced what their next show will be, we can expect the highest quality based on last year’s hilarious Two Gentlemen of Verona.The Washington Center, in downtown Olympia, seats 945 and hosts performances 350 days per year.Nearby, in the east side neighborhood is Olympia Little Theatre, our city’s longest-running theater company. OLT was founded in 1939, which means they were presenting plays during World War II, through the sixties psychedelic revolution, amid the cold war, while Nirvana came and went, and are still going strong today. Their next show is Come Back to the Five & Dime Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean, running the second half of January.Olympia is also host to The Washington Center for the Performing Arts, which brings some of the best theater in the country to our own backyards.In addition, there are several other theater companies new to the scene, radio-based performance groups, dance companies, burlesque groups, improv troupes, and much, much more. Olympia has a disproportionate number of theater groups compared to other cities of its size in the country. No matter what personally makes you tick when it comes to live theater, you’re sure to find it among Olympia’s many dedicated theater companies, each brilliant at the specific niche they represent.Harlequin Productions Stardust shows are a holiday tradition.We at Harlequin Productions are honored to be part of such a superb theater community. Each year we present an eclectic season reflecting the “something for everyone” character of Olympia’s theater scene as a whole. This season, we’re presenting Stardust, a holiday musical for the whole family. After that is The 39 Steps, a comedic adaptation of an Alfred Hitchcock movie featuring four actors playing 139 roles. Next up is Laughter on the 23rd Floor, a Neil Simon comedy. In May we’ll offer Time Stands Still, an edgy modern drama following a photojournalist and a foreign correspondent whose romantic relationship is put to the test after one of them is badly wounded in Afghanistan. Our summer musical this year is Sixties Chicks Too, a revisit to one our most popular musicals ever: an all-female musical revue featuring some of the best music the 1960’s had to offer. Then we round out the season with a pair of shows: To Kill A Mockingbird, an adaptation of the American literary classic, and Recent Tragic Events, the story of a blind date on September 12, 2001.All art has its place, all theater has its place. What disturbs one person comforts another; what bores one person inspires another. From the edgy to the tame, from the tragic to the hilarious, from new works to classics, theater can offer something for everyone. And Olympia’s theater scene has it all. As we approach another new year, consider making it your resolution to get out and experience live theater in our culturally rich community.No matter who you are, I guarantee you’ll find something you love.
Richard Dawkins and E. O. Wilson, both atheistic evolutionists, are at odds over the evolution of unselfish love (altruism). Wilson attributes it to a revised form of group selection; Dawkins to individual selection (the basis of his “selfish gene” theory). Evolutionists see no difference between the “eusociality” in insect colonies, in which individuals sacrifice themselves for the good of the colony, and human patriotism. Wilson wrote up a survey in the journal Bioscience that questioned the traditional kin selection theory, according to EurekAlert. Many considered group selection a dead issue. Wilson himself admitted that “If you look at the literature of the theory, there are a lot of impressive-looking mathematical models but they scarcely ever come up with a real measure of anything that can be applied to nature.” In his article, he came up with a revised model of kin selection to explain altruism. This has not pleased Richard Dawkins, according to an article in the UK Independent. Dawkins thinks Wilson’s new approach is misleading and vacuous. To Dawkins, kin selection is just an artifact of individual selection. Wilson has fallen into a trap of misunderstanding natural selection at the gene level. The rhetoric between these two giants among evolutionary theorists got heated when Dawkins said, “Evidently Wilson’s weird infatuation with ‘group selection’ goes way back; unfortunate in a biologist who is so justly influential.” Wilson stood his ground in the battle royale: “I am used to taking the heat, and in the past I turned out to be right,” he said. Evolutionary theory has had particular trouble with explaining why humans will sacrifice for other people they don’t even know, or for animals.Maybe they would learn more about altruism by practicing it. It might dawn on them that it could not have evolved. Give up the weird infatuation with evolutionary theory, gentlemen; you both know that your impressive-looking mathematical models scarcely ever come up with a real measure of anything that can be applied to nature. Who said that?(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Science and logic are inseparable. Whether one approaches the study of nature from reason (rationalism) or evidence (empiricism), logical inferences and deductions are essential for understanding – or for claiming one’s scientific work produces understanding. When it comes to the reigning evolutionary perspective, though, how can a blind, chancy process like evolution produce reason, laws of logic, morality or knowledge? The best way to see how Darwinism scores on logical inference from its own premises is by examining the views of its leading defenders in the most prestigious publications.Nature editors: The editorial in Nature April 10 asked,1 what is “natural”? The occasion for the question was a transgendered woman-who-became-a-man announcing on Oprah that he/she/it had become pregnant. The editors seemed to waffle on the answer to the question. Uneasy to accept this person’s sexual identity crisis as natural, they had more questions than answers: e.g., “if drugs enhance performance on a standardized test, what is so ‘natural’ about prep courses designed to improve scores?” The question of what we mean by “natural” is a profoud issue (see 05/11/2006 for a deep discussion about it). Nature, however, started the editorial with a statement that begged much bigger questions: whether logic and intelligence is natural, and how they could have evolved:From an evolutionary perspective, we humans have good reason to be wary of things that seem to be ‘unnatural’. Anything out of the ordinary can be dangerous. But the evolutionary origin of that response also guarantees that it will be guided more by emotion than by reason.Michael Ruse: Philosophy of science is a field where logic and reason should be on full display. It was most interesting, therefore, to see what Michael Ruse, a self-proclaimed “hard-line Darwinian” philosopher, thought of a new book, Why Think? Evolution and the Rational Mind by Ronald DeSouza (Oxford, 2008). He reviewed the book in the March Literary Review of Canada. Ruse liked the book very much, and shared its usual speculations about what intelligence is good for in evolutionary biology: e.g., having fewer offspring means greater care must be invested in their care – which requires judgment. That, in turn, “means brains and all of the rest– getting on with others, finding protein and so forth,” he said, adding in his off-the-cuff way, “I am not sure if this is really an evolutionary justification for eating Big Macs, but one can say that this is all very much a feedback situation.” Where Ruse seemed to get tied up in knots was considering the comeback argument to all this from philosopher Alvin Plantinga. Ruse said Plantinga “loathes and detests” evolutionary biology. But he seemed disappointed that DeSousa in his book did not provide a satisfying answer to Plantinga’s challenge: “the unreliability of reason in the Darwinian scenario is reason enough to reject evolution and embrace God.” He elaborated:As Plantinga points out, what counts in evolution is success and not the truth. So how can we ever be sure of the truth? Perhaps none of our thoughts can tell. Perhaps none of our thoughts can tell us about reality. Perhaps we are like beings in a dream world….Everything we believe about evolution could be false.Ruse acknowledged that this question even troubled Darwin himself:With me the horrid doubt always arises whether the convictions of man’s mind, which has been developed from the mind of the lower animals, are of any value or are at all trustworthy. Would anyone trust in the convictions of a monkey’s mind, if there are any convictions in such a mind?Surprisingly, Ruse conceded that Plantinga could have employed this quote of Darwin to make his point. How did DeSousa respond to “Darwin’s Doubt”? In short, he argued that our mathematical knowledge could not have evolved by natural selection. Our brains evolved for other things. Since our brains discovered mathematics along the way, and found it useful for all kinds of other things (including predictions that came true), this implies our brains are able to comprehend external reality as it is, not just as we experience it. Ruse felt that DeSousa did not adequately answer Plantinga’s challenge. Ruse himself did not have a good answer, but shrugged it off: “you are probably right, but that is a level of skepticism about knowledge that excites philosophers and not mature human beings.” Then he changed the subject. He hoped DeSousa would write a sequel on the evolution of morality.Eugenie Scott: Speaking of morality, the director of the National Center for Science Education should be a good person to ask about evolutionary ethics. Eugenie Scott reviewed a book in Nature about “brave new bioethics,”2 Life As It Is, Biology for the Public Sphere by William F. Loomis (University of California Press, 2008). First, her review of philosophy:Science’s task is to explain the natural world: what it is, how it works and why it is the way it is. Ethics is about the oughts and the shoulds. Most ethicists – religious and secular – agree that knowledge of the natural world helps us make better, or at least better-informed, ethical decisions. But, as David Hume, Thomas Henry Huxley and G. E. Moore have noted, a particular understanding of nature does not dictate a unique moral stance.Thus one of the preeminent evolutionary spokespersons in America jumped right into the quagmire of evolutionary ethics. One would think that Scott, whose life work is to keep evolution in schools and creationism out, would bring evolutionary theory to bear on the question and show its superiority in grounding ethics in something sustainable. But she said almost nothing about evolution. Instead, she de-emphasized the ability of science to inform ethical decision-making. “The idea that a realistic understanding of biology will usher in a paradise of ethical correctness,” she said, “is naive: the panoply of extra-scientific considerations that influence ethical decision-makings cannot be ignored or minimized.” At one point she described Loomis making advice about sustainability: “Loomis recommends a programme of voluntary population reduction,” she said, apparently uncomfortable with this idea: “requiring both political leadership and a radical change of public opinion.” Hopefully Loomis was not recommending mass suicide. What she failed to provide, though, was an answer to the question she raised at the beginning: if science cannot dictate a unique moral stance, how can it provide “better, or at least better-informed, ethical decisions”?Self-refuting sci-fi: Science journals don’t have to be all dry. Nature ends each issue with a science fiction short story featurette called “Futures.”3 The April 10 entry was a story by Neal Morison set in the far distant future. A group of scientists were reliving a century-old discovery that a lively blogger turned out to be a robot. The moral of the story seemed to suggest this had solved the mind-body problem, one of philosophy’s biggest questions, once and for all. What the story actually did, though was beg the question: who built the computer? And who programmed the robot?David Tyler blogged about the Nature articles on Access Research Network.1. Editorial, “Defining ‘natural’,” Nature 452, 665-666 (10 April 2008) | doi:10.1038/452665b.2. Eugenie Scott, “Brave new bioethics,” Nature 452, 690-691 (10 April 2008) | doi:10.1038/452690a.3. Neal Morison, “All over, Rover,” Nature 452, 780 (10 April 2008) | doi:10.1038/452780a.There you have it: the world’s biggest Darwin defenders can’t answer the question: how can evolutionary theory produce any knowledge that is trustworthy – including the supposition that evolution is true? They either shrug their shoulders or retreat into fiction. Since Michael Ruse took delight in a jab at the Bible, let’s see how logical it was. He said of DeSouza’s introduction, “I knew I was going to love this book” when the author compared Abraham to Andrea Yates (the delusional housewife who said God told her to kill her five children). DeSouza quipped, “When enough people share a delusion, it loses its status as a psychosis and gets a religious tax exemption instead.” Oh; you mean, like Darwinism?. DeSouza may have scored on ridicule, but not on logic. If Yates had truly received a message from God, she would not have killed her children. How many times did God angrily speak through his prophets about the idolaters who burned their children in the fire? Over and over, God said of such horrendous practices, “I did not command them, nor did it come into My mind” (e.g., Jeremiah 32:35). Human sacrifice was such a completely alien concept to the mind of God, He pronounced severe judgments on the nations that practiced it. But self-sacrifice for others is one of the highest measures of love: “Greater love hath no man,” said Jesus, “than that a man lay down his life for his friends.” So put the pieces together. What of God’s command to Abraham to sacrifice his son? This was not a temptation, or even a test of Abraham’s faith (God, being omniscient, already knew what Abraham would do). This was one of many types or pictures in the Old Testament of Christ. Just as God provided the ram as a substitute for Isaac, God provided a Lamb as a substitute for our sins. God’s righteousness demands penalty for sin, and the wages of sin is death (Romans 6:23). Either we will die for our sins, or a substitute will take our place. The only person able to give a life in payment for the sins of the world was Jesus Christ, the Son of God. He alone in the universe was fully God and fully man. Since the persons of the Trinity never act apart from one another, and share fully in each other’s joys and sorrows, God was providing Abraham (and all of us) an illustration of the torment of being ordered, “Take thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, and offer him as a sacrifice.” The pain of God’s sacrifice of His Son having as satisfaction for His justice was portrayed in a heart-wrenching way to the world. Yes, God provided the Lamb: Himself! What Abraham did is polar opposite from Andrea Yates did. What good came from her delusional revelation? Yet look how the world has been blessed by those who are children of Abraham by faith. And what kind of character was Abraham? Up to that point, and throughout his life, he showed by his actions to be a man of sound mind and self-sacrificing character, bold for the cause of right, but gentle and loving toward his family and neighbors. He was not delusional. By all accounts of his friends and his enemies, he was a great man. He was great spiritually because he believed God, and God counted it to him as righteousness (see Hebrews 11:8-19). Faith is only as good as its object. It is not Abraham’s faith per se that made him great: it was that the object of his faith was the true and living God. As for Abraham founding three world religions, well, the story of the sacrifice of Isaac makes no sense apart from its fulfillment in Jesus Christ, and Mohammed was a latecomer who co-opted the fame of Abraham for anti-Abrahamic ends (e.g., killing Jews and Christians). Abraham did not set out to found any religion. He just obeyed God, and God brought about the answers to the promises He gave Abraham: “I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse those who curse you.” Whether any religion deserves tax breaks is a side issue. The delusional religion of Darwinism gets a free ride in all our public schools, national parks, museums, courts, media and science labs. Who are they to complain about religious tax exemptions? Watch out when the Darwinists gain absolute power and act consistent with their presuppositions. They might just give tax breaks to the Andrea Yates types who follow delusions and exhibit relativistic morality. Neither DeSouza nor Ruse can claim any action is more rational or moral than any other. So how logical was Michael Ruse to laugh at DeSouza’s distortion of Scripture? Pray for him. Despite his bluffing, he seems troubled by Plantinga’s challenge.(Visited 19 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Heat pumps can get frosty when they run in heating mode. It doesn’t happen all that often, but it’s a fact of life when you’re trying to extract heat from cold, outdoor air.Sometimes the outdoor coil goes below the dew point, and frost results. There’s nothing wrong with that. Every heat pump comes with a built-in defrost system so it will keep running smoothly.Unfortunately, the defrost system in most heat pumps is just plain dumb. And fortunately, I have a smart friend named Mike MacFarland who’s come up with a way to overcome that liability. What’s so dumb about heat pump defrost systems?Let me ask you a question. If you were to design a defrost system with sensors and controls to determine when the defrost cycle ran, how would you design it? Would your heat pump defrost system activate when it detects there’s a small chance of frost forming on the coil? Or would it instead turn on the defrost cycle when it actually measures that frost has formed? The results are inMacFarland recently put his heat pump with the Energy Docs Intelligent Defrost System to the test, logging the data of its performance over a 62 day period in December 2013 and January 2014. The graph above is one small part of what he’s learned. Here’s what’s even better: Energy saved per heating season compared to 2 hr interval~150 kWh Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, energy consultant, RESNET-certified trainer, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. You can follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. What’s wrong with a dumb defrost system?When a heat pump goes into the defrost mode, the reversing valve activates and runs the refrigerant backwards. Instead of extracting heat from the outdoor air and dumping it into the house, it extracts heat from the house and dumps it into the cold outdoor air. That heats up the outdoor coil and melts any frost that might be on it.What do you think happens to the indoors when the heat pump is in defrost mode? You guessed it. The heat pump, absent the effects of supplemental heat, would be cooling the house. In winter. On a very cold night.For most homes with heat pumps, that’s when the supplemental heat kicks in. You can’t have the system blowing cold air inside when people want heat, right? That just wouldn’t do. So, the supplemental heat fires up, and for most people, that means electric resistance heat (a.k.a. strip heat). It’s 100% efficient… but that’s only about a third as efficient as your heat pump.If you have a dual-fuel system, the backup heat is usually a furnace. There will often be a delay before it comes on, though, so you might get a blast of cold air from your heat pump running in air-conditioning mode before the furnace gets going. (Did that just explain a mystery for you?)So, either you’ll be paying for expensive strip heat for a while or you’ll get a chill in the house. Neither is ideal. If there’s no actual frost on the outdoor unit, that’s just a slap in the face.Oh, and that defrost cycle puts a lot of extra wear and tear on the equipment. As my friend Mike MacFarland explained it, going into defrost cycle is like driving down the freeway at full speed and every once in a while suddenly having to drop it into reverse.Another problem is noise. When the heat pump changes the direction of refrigerant flow, it’s something you’ll notice if you happen to be in earshot of the outdoor unit. If you don’t know what’s going on, you might think something is wrong and put in a service call. Energy saved per heating season compared to 1/2 hr interval~400 kWh As you can see, the EDIDS cut the number of defrost cycles way down. It got rid of 76% of the unnecessary defrost cycles that would have occurred without the EDIDS and with the timer set to the 2-hour interval and eliminated 94% of the unnecessary defrost cycles with the timer set to 1/2-hour intervals.The energy savings aren’t huge, but, as he told me recently, his primary reasons for doing this were comfort, noise, and wear-and-tear on the equipment. Also, he doesn’t have supplemental heat set up on his heat pump. If you factor in the energy used by strip heat on a typical heat pump, the savings are greater than shown above.The takeaway here is that most heat pumps implement defrost in a really dumb way. Now you have a choice, though. An intelligent defrost system exists: the Energy Docs Intelligent Defrost System. If you’re interested, you can find MacFarland’s contact info on the Energy Docs website.In case you’re wondering: No, I don’t make anything by promoting his product here. I just like good stuff that makes sense. Mike is a shining star in the home performance/HVAC industry. You could probably learn a lot by hanging out with him for a while. If you can’t do that in person, you should definitely go hit the Energy Docs Like button if you’re on Facebook. How else are going to find out that this guy is so nutty with his single-minded focus on measuring things that he’s got a datalogger hanging in his shower?! Just go do it. # of defrost cycles at 2 hr interval111 As it turns out, the defrost system on most heat pumps does the former. The image below (Image #2) shows the text from the product literature for a common heat pump, and it explains what happens. The outdoor coil has a temperature sensor mounted on it. When the temperature it reads hits 31°F, it starts a timer, which on this piece of equipment will be set to 30, 60, or 90 minutes. If the temperature is still 31°F or below at the end of the timer cycle, the defrost cycle begins.Maybe there’s frost. Maybe not. This system is based only on temperature and time. Apparently, heat pump manufacturers forgot that frost forming on a surface also depends on the amount of moisture in the air and this thing called the dew point.OK. We both know they didn’t forget that. They made a choice to reduce their manufacturing cost at the expense of the homeowner’s comfort, peace of mind, and energy costs. And the equipment may not last as long either. But hey, who’s gonna notice? Actual # of defrost cycles27 # of defrost cycles at 1/2 hr interval443 Mike MacFarland makes heat pumps intelligent!So how do you design a defrost system that operates only when the outdoor unit actually has frost on it? Well, you don’t have to because Mike MacFarland, owner of Energy Docs in Redding, California, has already done it. He calls it the Energy Docs Intelligent Defrost System (EDIDS). His system uses the temperature sensor and timer but adds another key component: a pressure sensor.In the photo of his kit below (Image #3), the pressure sensor is the part with “Dwyer” on the label. That gets mounted under the service panel and measures the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the unit. With a clean coil that has no frost on it, that pressure difference won’t be much. As the coil loads up with frost, the pressure difference increases.MacFarland has configured the kit so that the defrost cycle doesn’t start until the pressure difference climbs to about 0.35 inches of water column. With frost on the unit creating that much pressure drop, he’s measured a performance drop of about 24%. He’s OK taking that much of a hit from frost, because sometimes the ambient conditions change, and there’s no need to go into defrost mode. If not, the heat pump switches into reverse, melts the frost, and then goes back into heating mode.A typical heat pump will go into defrost every 30, 60, or 90 minutes if the outdoor coil temperature stays below setpoint (~31° F). MacFarland’s system goes into defrost mode only when necessary. The graph below (Image #4) shows how the pressure builds during a long runtime, eventually kicking off the defrost cycle when it hits 0.35 i.w.c. RELATED ARTICLES Does a Heat Pump Condenser Need to Go Outdoors?Heat Pumps: The BasicsChoosing HVAC Equipment for an Energy-Efficient Home
TFA would like to congratulate and wish luck to all who are representing Australia at the 2007 FIT World Cup, and you have the opportuniy to show your support for the Aussies and do the same.Messages of support and congratulations can be sent to all Aussie players, teams, coaches, and officials currently at the tournament.Send your message by fax to:Protea Hotel Stellenbosch, South AfricaFax: 0015-27-218-809-505